Approachable mental model of main cloud networking concepts (uses AWS terms).
A summary from the article:
VPC: Internet Cafe for LAN parties with computer connected together.
Subnets: They are how we would separate a big Internet Cafe into multiple independent LANs that can’t communicate with each other. It defines the boundaries of a local network.
Route table: Rules and patterns allowing to configure how to dispatch network traffic of a subnet.
NAT / Network Address Translation: Allows to translate LAN IP addresses into publicly routable addresses.
Availability Zones: A VPC exists in an AWS Region and is available on several availability zones (AZs). With the local construct of the route table, AWS handles communication between 2 subnets in different AZs.